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Lactoferricin B [id=LFB0086]

Synonym: LF f(17-41) ; LFcin B

Producer Organism : Native Protein : Production Method :
Cow Lactoferrin (LF) Synthetic
Activity : Antibacterial, antifungal
Target Organisms :

Gram-positive: Bacillus subtilis (MIC=6.3 g/ml), Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (MIC=30 g/ml), Bacillus cereus FSAW 0303 (MIC=400 g/ml), Bacillus subtilis FSAW 0320 (MIC=6.3 g/ml), Listeria innocua FSAW 2305 (MIC=6.3 g/ml), Listeria monocytogenes FSAW 2310 (MIC=6.3 g/ml), Listeria monocytogenes FSAW 2325 (MIC=6.3 g/ml).

Gram-negative: Escherichia coli O111 (MIC=22.5 g/ml), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC=30 g/ml), Escherichia coli NCTC 8196 (MIC=12.5 g/ml), Salmonella enteritidis FSAW 3420 (MIC=25 g/ml), Salmonella typhimurium FSAW 3412 (MIC=6.3 g/ml).

Yeast: Candida albicans TIMM0134 (MIC=30 M), Candida albicans KSC1 (MIC=30 M), Candida albicans ATCC 14053 (MIC=20 g/ml), Candida tropicalis ATCC 750 (MIC=5 g/ml), Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 66031 (MIC=2.5 g/ml).

NOTE: No activity against Yersinia enterocolitica 8081, Proteus mirabilis NCTC-60, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Proteus mirabilis wild-type (>200 g/ml) .

Description :
Production method: Synthetic.

See LFB0084, LFB0085 and LFB0087.
The cyclic bovin lactoferricin (LFB0086) and the linear lactoferricins of bovine (LFB0089), human (LFH0026), murine (LFM0020)and caprine (LAG0006) origin were synthesized and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Only Lf-cinB (LFB0086 and LFB0089) showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus. We found that cyclic Lf-cin B (LFB0084; LFB0086) was more active than linear Lf-cin B (LFB0089) (Citation: 1).
To investigate the peptide structure-biological activity relationships, bovine lactoferricin, its basic amino acid-rich region (LFB0109) and their analogues were synthesized . LFB0109 and its substituted peptides (LFB0112, LFB0113, LFB0114, LFB0115, LFB0116, LFB0117) also had similar antimicrobial activity while losing most of the hemolytic activities as compared to the long peptides (LFB0086 and LFB0090) (Citation: 2).
LFB0018, which consists of the N-terminal half of LFB0086, revealed the strongest anti-Candida cell activity. The anti-Candida cell activity of LFB0086 was about one-third that of LFB0018. Whereas, LFB0118, which consists of the six amino residues near the N-terminus, revealed very weak anti-Candida cell activity. In addition, LFB0120, which consists of the C-terminal half of bLF, exhibited only weak anti-Candida cell activity. Therefore, the main anti-Candida cell activity of bLF appears to exist in the N-terminal half and the activity was increased by discarding the C-terminal half (Citation: 3).
Length : 25 Mass (Da): 3 126.25 Common Amino Acids : R
Isolectric Point : 12.35 Net Charge : 8 Absent Amino Acids : DEHNY
Basic Residues : 8 Acidic Residues : 0 Hydrophobic Residues : 9
Polar Residues : 5 Boman Index : -68.79 Hydropathy Index : -0.576
Aliphatic Index : 50.8 Instability Index : 0 Extinction Coefficient : 11125
Absorbance 280nm : 463.54

Wheel representation

Hydrophobicity plot

Red solid plot : values according to the hydrophobicity scale of Kyte and Doolittle (reference paper).
Yellow dashed plot : Experimentally determined hydrophobicity scale for proteins at membrane interfaces(reference paper).
Green dotted-dashed plot : prediction of transmembrane helices (reference paper). In this scale (unlike the others), more negative values reflect greater hydrophobicity.

Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA)


                      1 [        .         .         . ] 32
  1 LFBNATIVE 100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAFALECIRA   
  2 LFB0017   100.0%    FKCRRWQWR-----------------------   
  3 LFB0043    93.3%    FKCRRWQWRAKKLGA-----------------   
  4 LFB0052    86.7%    FKCWRWQWRWKKLGA-----------------   
  5 LFB0037    93.3%    FKCARWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
  6 LFB0040    93.3%    FKCRRWAWRMKKLGA-----------------   
  7 LFB0038    93.3%    FKCRAWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
  8 LFB0088    96.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE-------   
  9 LFB0039    93.3%    FKCRRAQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 10 LFB0062    93.3%    FKCRRAQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 11 LFB0072    93.3%    FKCRRAQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 12 LFB0075    93.3%    FKCRRAQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 13 LFB0078    93.3%    FKCRRAQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 14 LFB0064    86.7%    FKCRRAQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 15 LFB0117    54.5%    ---RRAAARAKKAG------------------   
 16 LFB0080    86.7%    FKCRRAQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 17 LFB0074    86.7%    FKCRRAQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 18 LFB0077    86.7%    FKCRRAQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 19 LFB0056    93.3%    FKCRRFQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 20 LFB0059    93.3%    FKCRRFQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 21 LFB0053    93.3%    FKCRRFQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 22 LFB0081    93.3%    FKCRRFQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 23 LFB0055    86.7%    FKCRRFQFRMKKLGA-----------------   
 24 LFB0058    86.7%    FKCRRFQFRMKKLGA-----------------   
 25 LFB0061    86.7%    FKCRRFQFRMKKLGA-----------------   
 26 LFB0083    86.7%    FKCRRFQFRMKKLGA-----------------   
 27 LFB0041    93.3%    FKCRRWQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 28 LFB0063    93.3%    FKCRRWQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 29 LFB0076    93.3%    FKCRRWQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 30 LFB0079    93.3%    FKCRRWQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 31 LFB0073    93.3%    FKCRRWQARMKKLGA-----------------   
 32 LFB0060    93.3%    FKCRRWQFRMKKLGA-----------------   
 33 LFB0082    93.3%    FKCRRWQFRMKKLGA-----------------   
 34 LFB0057    93.3%    FKCRRWQFRMKKLGA-----------------   
 35 LFB0054    93.3%    FKCRRWQFRMKKLGA-----------------   
 36 LFB0042    93.3%    FKCRRWQWAMKKLGA-----------------   
 37 LFB0115    81.8%    ---RRWQRWMKKLG------------------   
 38 LFB0033   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 39 LFB0032   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 40 LFB0031   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 41 LFB0050    86.7%    FKWRRWQWRMKKLWA-----------------   
 42 LFB0051    80.0%    FKWRRWWWRMKKLWA-----------------   
 43 LFB0049    93.3%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLWA-----------------   
 44 LFB0018   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRM----------------------   
 45 LFB0020   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMK---------------------   
 46 LFB0045    93.3%    FKCRRWQWRMKALGA-----------------   
 47 LFB0044    93.3%    FKCRRWQWRMAKLGA-----------------   
 48 LFB0097   100.0%    ---RRWQWR-----------------------   
 49 LFB0030   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLG------------------   
 50 LFB0087   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAF-------   
 51 LFB0024    54.5%    YKAWRWAWRWK---------------------   
 52 LFB0025    54.5%    YKAWRWAWRWK---------------------   
 53 LFB0027    36.4%    YRMWRWAWRWR---------------------   
 54 LFB0028    36.4%    YRMWRWRWRWR---------------------   
 55 LFB0026    36.4%    YRAWRWAWRWR---------------------   
 56 LFB0023    63.6%    YKARRWAWRWK---------------------   
 57 LFB0022    72.7%    YKARRWAWRMK---------------------   
 58 LFB0021    81.8%    FKARRWAWRMK---------------------   
 59 LFB0019    90.0%    FKARRWQWRM----------------------   
 60 LFB0036    93.3%    FKARRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 61 LFB0070    93.3%    FKARRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 62 LFB0069    93.3%    FKARRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 63 LFB0068    93.3%    FKARRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 64 LFB0065    93.3%    FKARRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 65 LFB0106   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 66 LFB0029    45.5%    RRWYRWAWRMR---------------------   
 67 LFB0118   100.0%    ----RWQWRM----------------------   
 68 LFB0113    81.8%    ---RRWQWRMRRLG------------------   
 69 LFB0112    72.7%    ---KKWQWKMKKLG------------------   
 70 LFB0114    81.8%    ---KKWQWRMKKLG------------------   
 71 LFB0116    54.5%    ---EEWQWEMEELG------------------   
 72 LFB0048    93.3%    FKWRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 73 LFB0090    92.0%    FKSRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITSVRRAF-------   
 74 LFB0110    18.2%    ----RRWQWRMKKLG-----------------   
 75 LFB0067    93.3%    FKFRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 76 LFB0071    93.3%    FKFRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 77 LFB0066    93.3%    FKFRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 78 LFB0108   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKKL-------------------   
 79 LFB0102   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 80 LFB0034    93.3%    AKCRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 81 LFB0111   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKKLG------------------   
 82 LFB0104   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 83 LFB0035    93.3%    FACRRWQWRMKKLGA-----------------   
 84 LFB0109   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKKLG------------------   
 85 LFB0101   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 86 LFB0046    93.3%    FKCRRWQWRMKKAGA-----------------   
 87 LFB0107   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 88 LFB0100   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 89 LFB0047    93.3%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLAA-----------------   
 90 LFB0098   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 91 LFB0105   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 92 LFB0103   100.0%    ---RRWQWRMKK--------------------   
 93 LFB0086   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAF-------   
 94 LFB0089   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAF-------   
 95 LFB0085   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAF-------   
 96 LFB0084   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAF-------   
 97 LFB0092   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAFA------   
 98 LFB0095   100.0%    -KCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCV-----------   
 99 LFB0096   100.0%    --CRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCV-----------   

100 LFB0093   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAFAL-----   

101 LFB0091   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAFA------   

102 LFB0119   100.0%    ----------KKLGAPSITCVRRAFA------   
103 LFB0120   100.0%    -------------GAPSITCVRRAF-------   

104 LFB0121   100.0%    ----------------------------CIRA   
105 LFB0094   100.0%    FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAFALECIR-   

Citation: 1

Lactoferricin of bovine origin is more active than lactoferricins of human, murine and caprine origin

Cited Entries: LFH0026, LFB0086, LFB0089, LAG0006, LFM0020

Authors:Vorland, L.H., Ulvatne, H., Andersen, J., Haukland, H.H., Rekdal, ., Svendsen, J.S., Gutteberg, T.J.
Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 1998, 30.
Abstract: The antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin is generated by gastric pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin. We have examined the antimicrobial activity of lactoferricins derived from lactoferrin of human, murine, caprine and bovine origin with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 25923. We found that lactoferricin of bovine origin (Lf-cin B) was the most efficacious of the lactoferricins tested. By comparing the linear and cyclic Lf-cin B we found the cyclic peptide to be the most active. Lactoferricin B was moderately active against E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 25923, but had no activity against P. mirabilis or Y. enterocolitica. Lf-cin B showed good activity against C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. neoformans.
Keywords: PEPTIDE antibiotics; Lactoferrin
Citation: 2

Structure-biological activity relationships of 11-residue highly basic peptide segment of bovine lactoferrin

Cited Entries: LFB0086, LFB0090, LFB0109, LFB0112, LFB0113, LFB0114, LFB0115, LFB0116, LFB0117

Authors:Kang, J.H., Lee, M.K., Kim, K.L., Hahm, K.S.
Journal: International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research 1996, 48(4).
Abstract: The antimicrobial peptide, lactoferricin, is generated upon the gastric pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin and has many basic and hydrophobic amino acid residues essential for its biological activity. To investigate the structure-antimicrobial activity relationships, the basic amino acid-rich region of bovine lactoferricin (BLFC), RRWQWRMKKLG, was selected. Using chemically synthesized BLFC and its substituted peptides, the antimicrobial activities of the peptides were tested by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and the disruption of the outer cell membrane of E. coli, and the peptide's toxicities were assayed by hemolysis. The short peptide (B3) composed of only 11 residues had similar antimicrobial activities while losing most of the hemolytic activities as compared with the 25 residue-long ones (B1 and B2). The short peptides (B3, B5 and B7) with double arginines at the N-termini had more potent antimicrobial activity than those (B4 and B6) with lysine. However, no antimicrobial and hemolytic activities were found in B8, in which all basic amino acids were substituted with glutamic acid, and in B9, in which all hydrophobic amino acids were substituted with alanine. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the short peptides in 30 mM SDS were correlated with their antimicrobial activities. These results suggested that the 11-residue peptide of BLFC is involved in the interaction with bacterial phospholipid membranes and plays an important role in antimicrobial activity with little or no hemolytic activity.
Keywords: antimicrobial activity; bovine lactoferrin; CD spectra; hemolysis; Lactoferricin
Citation: 3

A novel bovine lactoferrin peptide, FKCRRWQWRM, suppresses Candida cell growth and activates neutrophils

Cited Entries: LFB0018, LFB0019, LFB0086, LFB0097, LFB0118, LFB0120

Authors:Ueta, E., Tanida, T., Osaki, T.
Journal: The Journal of Peptide Research 2001, 57(3).
Abstract: To identify potent new antifungal agents, the Candida cell growth inhibitory activities of six lactoferrin (Lf) peptides consisting of 6-25 amino acid residues (peptide 1, FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAF lactoferricin B; peptide 2, FKCRRWQWRM; peptide 2', FKARRWQWRM; peptide 3, GAPSITCVRRAF; peptide 4, RRWQWR; and peptide 5, RWQWRM) were examined. Of these, peptide 2 strongly suppressed the multiplication of Candida cells, but other peptides showed only weak activities. In two strains of C. albicans, the minimum inhibitory concentration 100 of peptide 2 (17.3+/-2.2 microM and 17.5+/-2.4 microM) was close to that of miconazole (13.0+/-1.7 microM and 13.1+/-1.6 microM) but markedly different from that of amphotericin B (0.52+/-0.09 microM and 0.56+/-0.11 microM). The suppression of Candida cell growth was additively increased by a combination of peptide 2 with amphotericin B and miconazole. Peptides 1, 3, 4 and 5 and Lf suppressed iron uptake by Candida cells, inversely correlated with their Candida cell growth inhibition activities. However, iron uptake was not inhibited by peptide 2. In addition, peptide 2 upregulated Candida cell killing activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increasing their superoxide generation, protein kinase C activity, p38 MAPK activity and the expression of p47phox. These results indicated that the main antimicrobial activity of the Lf peptides is dependent on the N-terminal half of Lf and that the PMN upregulatory activity of peptide 2 and additive function of peptide 2 with antifungal drugs are useful for prophylaxis and control of candidiasis.
Keywords: Candida albicans; Candida killing; Fkcrrwqwrm; lactoferrin peptides; neutrophils
Citation: 4

Isolation and characterisation of antibacterial peptides derived from the f(164-207) region of bovine alphaS2-casein

Cited Entries: LFB0086, CAA0014, CAA0015, CAA0017, CAA0018, CAA0019

Authors:McCann, K.B., Shiell, B.J., Michalski, W.P., Lee, A., Wan, J., Roginski, H., Coventry, M.J.
Journal: International Dairy Journal 2005, 15(2).
CrossRef External Link
Abstract: A chymosin digest of sodium caseinate, which showed antibacterial activity against Listeria innocua, was fractionated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography and the purified antibacterial peptides were characterised by mass spectrometry, N-terminal amino acid sequencing and comparison to peptide masses of theoretical enzymic digests of milk proteins. Five antibacterial peptides, Cr1, Cr3, Cr4, Cr5 and Cr7 corresponding to amino acid residues 181207, 180207, 175207, 164207 and 172207 of bovine αS2-casein, respectively, were isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentration of peptides Cr1, Cr4 and Cr5 was determined against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and showed similar activities to those of the bacteriocin peptide, nisin and the antibacterial peptide, lactoferricin B against certain Gram-positive bacteria. A partially purified chymosin digest of sodium caseinate (CrMIX) was prepared and observed to be heat stable for up to 15 min on exposure to 121 C. Although CrMIX showed bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium in 0.1% (w/v) peptone medium, no antibacterial activity was observed when tested in skim milk at the same concentration.
Keywords: Antibacterial; Peptide; [alpha]s2-Casein
Citation: 5

Bactericidal kinetics of 3 lactoferricins against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

Cited Entries: LFB0032, LFB0033, LFB0086

Authors:Ulvatne, H., Vorland, L.H.
Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 2001, 33.
Abstract: Bovine lactoferricin is an antimicrobial, cationic peptide generated upon gastric pepsin cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. We investigated the bactericidal effects of native lactoferricin [Lfcin B(17-41)], a shortened derivative [Lfcin B(17-31)] and the all-D-amino acid counterpart of Lfcin B(17-31) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results revealed different activities for the peptides against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. D-Lfcin B(17-31) was the most efficient peptide against E. coli. The same peptide showed improved activity against S. aureus, D-Lfcin B(17-31) showed a significant better efficacy when compared to the L-form, but not when compared to Lfcin B(17-41). There was no correlation between the bactericidal concentrations and the time needed to achieve maximum effect. This indicates the importance of structural differences between the peptides and/or bacteria and implies that the simple thesis of I antibacterial target is not valid for lactoferricin.
Keywords: Lactoferrin; peptides; STAPHYLOCOCCUS aureus infections; ESCHERICHIA coli infections; MECHANISM of action (Biochemistry); STRUCTURE-activity relationships (Biochemistry); Treatment

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