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LF f(21-31) modified [id=LFH0047]

Synonym: Lauryl-LF11 ; Acyl 12-LF11

Producer Organism : Native Protein : Production Method :
Human Lactoferrin (LF) Synthetic
Activity : Antibacterial
Target Organisms :

Gram-positive: Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATTC 33591 (MIC=62 g/ml).

Gram-negative:Active against Salmonella minnesota wild type, Salmonella minnesota strain R595, Salmonella minnesota strain R60 at 100g/ml, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC=64 g/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (MIC=62 g/ml).

Description :
Production method: Synthetic.

Antibacterial peptide acylation, which mimics the structure of the natural lipopeptide polymyxin B, increases antimicrobial activitie. The interaction of the lactoferricin- derived peptide LFH0046 and its N-terminally acylated analogue, LFH0047, with different chemotypes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS Re, Ra and smooth S form) was investigated. Both peptide exhibit high antibacterial activity against the three strains of Salmonella enterica differing in the LPS chemotype. LFH0047 has higher activity against Re-type, but activity against Ra- and S-type bacteria is comparable with that of LFH0046 (Citation: 1).
Thereby, LFH0046 did not affect mammalian membranes and showed only moderate effects on bacterial membranes in accordance with its non-hemolytic and weak antimicrobial activity. In contrast, the introduction of the N-lauryl group caused significant changes in the phase behaviour and lipid chain packing in both model membrane systems. These findings correlate with the in vitro tests on methicillin resistant S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and human red blood cells, showing increased biological activity of LFH0047 (Citation: 2).
Length : 11 Mass (Da): 1 531.43 Common Amino Acids : R
Isolectric Point : 12.81 Net Charge : 4 Absent Amino Acids : ACDEGHLMPSTY
Basic Residues : 4 Acidic Residues : 0 Hydrophobic Residues : 4
Polar Residues : 1 Boman Index : -53.76 Hydropathy Index : -1.573
Aliphatic Index : 61.82 Instability Index : 0 Extinction Coefficient : 5500
Absorbance 280nm : 550

Wheel representation

Hydrophobicity plot

Red solid plot : values according to the hydrophobicity scale of Kyte and Doolittle (reference paper).
Yellow dashed plot : Experimentally determined hydrophobicity scale for proteins at membrane interfaces(reference paper).
Green dotted-dashed plot : prediction of transmembrane helices (reference paper). In this scale (unlike the others), more negative values reflect greater hydrophobicity.

Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA)

 1 LFH0010  100.0%  GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCIKRDSPIQCIQA 
 2 LFH0016  100.0%  -----------------TKCFQWQRN----------------------- 
 3 LFH0020   88.9%  -----------------TKCFQWQGN----------------------- 
 4 LFH0017   88.9%  -----------------TKCGQWQRN----------------------- 
 5 LFH0018   77.8%  -----------------TKCFGWGRN----------------------- 
 6 LFH0019   88.9%  -----------------TGCFQWQRN----------------------- 
 7 LFH0011  100.0%  -------------QPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
 8 LFH0012  100.0%  --------------PEATKCFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
 9 LFH0013  100.0%  ---------------EATKCFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
10 LFH0014  100.0%  ----------------ATKCFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
11 LFH0041   91.7%  -------------------CFQWQRNMRKVA------------------ 
12 LFH0043  100.0%  --------------------FQWQRNMRK-------------------- 
13 LFH0040   91.7%  -------------------CFQWQRNMRKAR------------------ 
14 LFH0015  100.0%  -----------------TKCFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
15 LFH0038   91.7%  -------------------CFQWQRNMAKVR------------------ 
16 LFH0039   91.7%  -------------------CFQWQRNMRAVR------------------ 
17 LFH0021  100.0%  -----------------TKCFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
18 LFH0027  100.0%  ------------------KCFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
19 LFH0030   91.7%  -------------------AFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
20 LFH0044  100.0%  --------------------FQWQRNMRKV------------------- 
21 LFH0049  100.0%  --------------------FQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
22 LFH0045  100.0%  --------------------FQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
23 LFH0031   91.7%  -------------------CAQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
24 LFH0055  100.0%  ---------------------QWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
25 LFH0022  100.0%  -----------------TKCFQWQRNMRKVRG----------------- 
26 LFH0029  100.0%  -------------------CFQWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
27 LFH0033   91.7%  -------------------CFQAQRNMRKVR------------------ 
28 LFH0056  100.0%  ------------------------RNMRKVR------------------ 
29 LFH0032   91.7%  -------------------CFAWQRNMRKVR------------------ 
30 LFH0034   91.7%  -------------------CFQWARNMRKVR------------------ 
31 LFH0023   93.3%  -----------------TKCFQWQWNMRKVRG----------------- 
32 LFH0057  100.0%  ---------------------------RKVR------------------ 
33 LFH0035   91.7%  -------------------CFQWQANMRKVR------------------ 
34 LFH0036   91.7%  -------------------CFQWQRAMRKVR------------------ 
35 LFH0046   90.9%  --------------------FQWQRNIRKVR------------------ 
36 LFH0047   90.9%  --------------------FQWQRNIRKVR------------------ 
37 LFH0048   90.9%  --------------------FQWQRNPRKVR------------------ 
38 LFH0037   91.7%  -------------------CFQWQRNARKVR------------------ 
39 LFH0024  100.0%  -----------------TKCFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCIKR--------- 
40 LFH0026  100.0%  -----------------TKCFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCIKRDS------- 
41 LFH0025  100.0%  -----------------TKCFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCIKRDS------- 
42 LFH0042  100.0%  -------------------CFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCI----------- 
43 LFH0054  100.0%  --------------------FQWQRNMRKVRGPPVS------------- 
44 LFH0028  100.0%  ------------------KCFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCI----------- 
45 LFH0007  100.0%  GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCIKRDSPIQCI-- 
46 LFH0058  100.0%  ---------------------------RKVRGPPVSCIKRDSP------ 
47 LFH0059  100.0%  ------------------------------------CIKRDSP------ 
48 LFH0009A 100.0%  GRRRRSVQWCA-------------------------------------- 
49 LFH0009B 100.0%  -----------VSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCIKRDSPIQCI-- 
50 LFH0005  100.0%  GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRKVRGPPVSCIKRDSPIQCI-- 
51 LFH0004  100.0%  GRRRRSVQWCA-------------------------------------- 
52 LFH0003  100.0%  GRRRRSVQW---------------------------------------- 
53 LFH0002  100.0%  GRRRRS------------------------------------------- 
54 LFH0006   97.9%  GRRRRSVQWCAVSQPEATKCFQWQRNMRRVRGPPVSCIKRDSPIQCI-- 

Citation: 1

Enhancement of endotoxin neutralization by coupling of a C12-alkyl chain to a lactoferricin-derived peptide

Cited Entries: LFH0046, LFH0047

Authors:Andra, J., Lohner, K., Blondelle, S.E., Jerala, R., Moriyon, I., Koch, M.H.J., Garidel, P., Brandenburg, K.
Journal: Biochemical Journal 2005, 385(1).
Abstract: Antibacterial peptide acylation, which mimics the structure of the natural lipopeptide polymyxin B, increases antimicrobial and endotoxin-neutralizing activities. The interaction of the lactoferricin-derived peptide LF11 and its N-terminally acylated analogue, lauryl-LF11, with different chemotypes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS Re, Ra and smooth S form) was investigated by biophysical means and was related to the peptides' biological activities. Both peptides exhibit high antibacterial activity against the three strains of Salmonella enterica differing in the LPS chemotype. Lauryl-LF11 has one order of magnitude higher activity against Re-type, but activity against Ra- and S-type bacteria is comparable with that of LF11. The alkyl derivative peptide lauryl-LF11 shows a much stronger inhibition of the LPS-induced cytokine induction in human mononuclear cells than LF11. Although peptide-LPS interaction is essentially of electrostatic nature, the lauryl-modified peptide displays a strong hydrophobic component. Such a feature might then explain the fact that saturation of the peptide binding takes place at a much lower peptide/LPS ratio for LF11 than for lauryl-LF11, and that an overcompensation of the negative LPS backbone charges is observed for lauryl-LF11. The influence of LF11 on the gel-to-liquid-crystalline phase-transition of LPS is negligible for LPS Re, but clearly fluidizing for LPS Ra. In contrast, lauryl-LF11 causes a cholesterol-like effect in the two chemotypes, fluidizing in the gel and rigidifying of the hydrocarbon chains in the liquid-crystalline phase. Both peptides convert the mixed unilamellar/non-lamellar aggregate structure of lipid A, the 'endotoxic principle' of LPS, into a multilamellar one. These data contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of the peptide-mediated neutralization of endotoxin and effect of lipid modification of peptides.
Citation: 2

Influence of N-acylation of a peptide derived from human lactoferricin on membrane selectivity

Cited Entries: LFH0046, LFH0047

Authors:Zweytick, D., Pabst, G., Abuja, P.M., Jilek, A., Blondelle, S.E., Andra, J., Jerala, R., Monreal, D., Martinez de Tejada, G., Lohner, K.
Journal: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 2006, 1758(9).
CrossRef External Link
Abstract: Increasing numbers of bacterial strains being resistant to conventional antibiotics emphasize the urgent need for new antimicrobial agents. One strategy is based on host defence peptides that can be found in every organism including humans. We have studied the antimicrobial peptide LF11, derived from the pepsin cleavage product of human lactoferrin, known for its antimicrobial and lipid A-binding activity, and peptide C12LF11, the N-lauryl-derivative of LF11, which has owing to the attached hydrocarbon chain an additional hydrophobic segment. The influence of this hydrocarbon chain on membrane selectivity was studied using model membranes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), mimicking bacterial plasma membranes, and of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a model system for mammalian membranes. A variety of biophysical techniques was applied. Thereby, we found that LF11 did not affect DPPC bilayers and showed only moderate effects on DPPG membranes in accordance with its non-hemolytic and weak antimicrobial activity. In contrast, the introduction of the N-lauryl group caused significant changes in the phase behaviour and lipid chain packing in both model membrane systems. These findings correlate with the in vitro tests on methicillin resistant S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and human red blood cells, showing increased biological activity of C12LF11 towards these test organisms. This provides evidence that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are crucial for biological activity of antimicrobial peptides, whereas a certain balance between the two components has to be kept, in order not to loose the specificity for bacterial membranes.
Keywords: Acylation and antimicrobial peptide; Lactoferrin; Antimicrobial and hemolytic activity; Model membrane

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